Refugees’ ability to find work in a given city and better contribute to Turkey’s economy, should also be taken into account. However, Turkey will continue to need the support of donors to shoulder this responsibility. In addition, Syrian women generally bear most of the responsibility for childcare and household duties, and in some cases their husbands or other family members are opposed to their work outside the home. Syrian nationals apply directly to the Turkish government and do not undergo individual status determination with UNHCR. Refugees International found that in some cases, cultural resistance is an obstacle to women’s employment outside the home, although this does not explain why only a tiny fraction of refugee women have access to the labor market in Turkey. If this situation is to change, programs must address the barriers women currently face, including the lack of childcare and cultural norms that oppose women’s work outside the home. Provide vocational trainings for women outside gender-stereotypical areas, which would provide more job opportunities. Please help us support the Syrian refugee community in Izmir, Turkey. While the turmoil at the Turkey-Greece frontier is at a halt for now, it will most likely return in the near future: after all, the 2015 refugee crisis had never come to a complete stop. “In Syria we didn’t send our children to work,” one Syrian woman told Refugees International in Gaziantep. Depending on their circumstances and country of origin, they may be eligible to apply to the UNHCR. However, more than 500,000 Syrians under Temporary Protection are still registered in Istanbul; thousands more are estimated to live there without the required identity documents. Compared with neighbouring countries, refugees in Turkey have a high rate of school enrolment and a large pro­portion work in the (mainly) informal sec­tor. As described by a UN Women official, “The statement that we frequently hear that ‘Syrian women don’t want to work,’ is a generalization that is not necessarily based [on] facts and is often a result of a lack of direct communication with the women and/or lack of information. Also, any vocational trainings provided should go beyond gender-stereotyped roles to help women find jobs that need to be filled and empower them as participants in the formal labor market and as members of society. As of October 2017, of the non-Syrian population of protection-seekers in Turkey: about 44% are from Afghanistan, 42% are from Iraq, and 10% are from Iran. In July 2019, economists predicted that Turkey’s economy would contract in the second and third quarters of 2019, and that only modest growth would follow. Funding under the second tranche includes projects to increase socioeconomic support for refugees and host communities. However, between January 2016 and October 2018, there were 60,822 work permits issued to Syrians. Refugees in Turkey: Health FMRC Series Report by Eleni Diker 1 01.06.2018 Istanbul/Turkey 1. People employed with a work permit and their beneficiaries are not eligible for the ESSN. “We had our homes; we didn’t pay rent.”. [1] A note on terminology: although under Turkish law, the status of refugee is reserved for people who have fled persecution in a European country, in this report, unless otherwise specified, the term “refugee” is used to describe a person who has fled his or her country because of a well-founded fear of persecution, regardless of the region from which they fled, in line with the definition of the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. But with an economic downturn and a rising unemployment rate, refugees who once found safe harbor in Turkey are now facing an increasingly hostile climate—from increasing deportations, to shrinking access to the labor market, to growing These factors make the experience of seeking asylum and awaiting an RSD decision in Turkey difficult and vulnerable. She also told Refugees International that it would not be a problem for her to give up the ESSN if a good job were available. When the refugee crisis ebbed in 2016, the EU could have used the time to fix its asylum system. As of October 2017, of the non-Syrian population of protection-seekers in Turkey: about 44% are from Afghanistan, 42% are from Iraq, and 10% are from Iran. This figure—culled last month from periodically updated statistics released by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)—constitutes a 4.2% increase in Turkey’s 2017 population of 81,745,000. I get the bus to work, same thing for my husband and my daughter. The primary responsibility for protecting the rights of refugees in Turkey falls on the Turkish authorities. Now, there are more than 3.6 million Syrian refugees living in Turkey – and over 1.6 million are children. “Relying on ourselves is better than getting assistance,” she said. Turkey now hosts the largest refugee population in the world (see Figure 1). We are Roni and Mimi, two American college students who moved to Turkey to work for TIAFI, an organization supporting the Syrian refugee community in Izmir. Watch the video. In 2011, that number stood at 16,000. “I asked for a work permit,” Khaled told Refugees International.” [The employer] asked for photos, a copy of my kimlik, [and] proof of accommodation. Refugee Rights Turkey was registered and certified as an association under Turkish law on September 16th, 2014, by the legal name of “Mülteci Hakları Derneği”. This order caused much anxiety for people with jobs in Istanbul and those whose individual circumstances tie them to the city, particularly because Istanbul offers far more work opportunities than many other provinces. By 2014 it reached 82,000 and in 2015 the number exceeded 100k. To lower cultural barriers to the employment of women outside the home, conduct educational sessions on the participation of women in the labor market for Syrian refugee communities, including male family members and community leaders. Hold specialized trainings and Turkish language courses for higher-skilled Syrian refugees to facilitate their access to suitable jobs in Turkey. Caritas Turkey helps to provide services in the fields of emergencies, health, education, social adjustment and employment. Such efforts are key to enabling refugees to no longer rely on humanitarian assistance but rather support themselves and their families through legal work in decent conditions; in addition, working legally would enable them to better contribute to Turkey’s economy by using their skills and paying taxes. In determining where to register these refugees, consider special circumstances, such as their responsibility for elderly family members or those having special needs. The country has provided Syrians under Temporary Protection the right to access work permits and formal employment. He said he did not want them to face discrimination, and that the hostility against Syrians in Turkey made him think of going to Europe and investing there instead. To protect their identity, Refugees International has used pseudonyms for all the displaced persons cited in the report. It was ranked as a Silver-level participant on Guidestar's Exchange, and its 2013 annual report states that only one one cent of every dollar went to administrative costs. The Government of Turkey (GoT) estimates the total number of registered Syrians under Temporary Protection (SuTPs) at 2,225,147 according to a new Policy Note prepared by the World Bank, Turkey’s Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis and the Road Ahead. For more information on the rights afforded with such status, see RSN-RRT’s booklets for Syrian refugees. The governments of these three nations and other organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Human Rights Watch are working to ensure that each of these 1.5 million children receives the education they deserve. Approximately 3 million Syrian refugees currently live in Turkey. [4] Regulation No 29594 on Work Permits of Foreigners Under Temporary Protection, January 15, 2016. The new law made a number of changes to the asylum system in Turkey, mainly with regard to legal procedures and bureaucracy. Turkey's migrant crisis, (Turkey's refugee crisis) was a period during the 2010s characterized by high numbers of people arriving in Turkey.Turkey became the top refugee receiving country in 2014 (1,587,374), mid-2015 (1,838,848), and mid-2016 (2,869,421) reported on UNHCR registered refugees by country/territory of asylum [sort each year on descending]. Together, these costs and the required administrative steps create a significant disincentive for employers to use the permits. Turkey not only hosts the largest refugee population in the world but has also put in place a strong and open policy framework to facilitate refugees’ access to the labour market. On 17 July 2019, the Immigration Department of the opposition “Syrian Coalition” held a workshop in media professionals, jurists, and representatives of civil society organizations, intending to ease tension and rage towards the Syrian presence in Turkey, after cases of attacks on Syrian refugees. ASAM also runs UNHCR’s (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) pre-screening of asylum seekers in Turkey. We don’t go out.”. Turkey has a very rich history and heritage. My brother alone can’t support the family,” she said. I work here, my husband, too.” Regarding the wave of identity checks in Istanbul, she said she knew she was easily identifiable as Syrian because of the type of headscarf she wears. Turkey, EU and the imperilled refugee deal. Syrian women often want and need to work but are unable to do so because the types of jobs available to them are often in factories or workshops in the informal labor market, entailing long working hours and low pay. [2] Law No 6458 on Foreigners and International Protection of April 11, 2013. It’s been nine years since Syrians started taking refuge in Turkey, and there are now 3.6 million Syrian refugees registered as “foreigners under temporary protection” in the country. “Khaled,” a Syrian man living in Gaziantep, said that when he worked in a factory, he repeatedly asked his employer for a work permit. IRAN While less discussed in the media, Turkey is also a destination for refugees from many other countries. The abrupt pivot to strict enforcement is unnecessarily harsh and fails to take into account the circumstances of refugees who have spent years building lives in Istanbul. For those coming from outside of this zone, Turkey may grant limited protection in the form of one of many temporary statuses (conditional refugee status, humanitarian residence permit, or temporary protection). July 30, 2020. A 2018 UN needs assessment found that Syrian women consider lack of employment, access to housing, and the inability to speak Turkish to be their greatest challenges in Turkey. I worked in factories from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., with no work permit. SYRIAN REFUGEES IN TURKEY September 2019 rof. Although they have the right to apply for a work permit, very few refugees receive full employment authorization. The Turkish Red Crescent (Kizilay), the World Food Program (WFP), and the Turkish government implement the program, which has been in place since 2016. Intense turmoil in Iraq over the last few years has brought many recent arrivals to the already steady figures seen in Turkey, going back to the aftermath of the invasion and overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq. In recent years, RSN has provided service to refugees from countries ranging from Cameroon to Turkmenistan. These checks were followed by a wave of reported deportations of Syrian men to Idlib province in Syria—an active war zone. Until recently, non-Syrian refugees applying for international protection would register with the Association for Solidarity with Asylum Seekers and Migrants (ASAM), an implementing partner of the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) in Ankara. “Abeer,” a lawyer from Syria, described the reality of working in Turkey when she arrived with her family six years earlier. “You can’t say anything because they’ll accuse you of starting it,” they said, adding that there should be mechanisms for women to file complaints without risking their reputations. “Amina,” who works in an NGO without a work permit, and “Arwa,” a math teacher who has worked and continued her studies in Turkey, said they had experienced sexual harassment. If you continue, we’ll assume that you are happy to receive all the cookies on the refugeesolidaritynetwork website. They described the lives they had built in Istanbul and said it would be difficult or even impossible to restart their lives in other provinces, where job opportunities are scarcer and, in some cases, they would be separated from their families. Syrian refugees in Jordan face a surging COVID-19 crisis on top of unemployment, barriers to accessing education, and other daunting challenges. This program is for compassionate volunteers who wish to provide valuable assistance in the Syrian refugee crisis in Turkey. In July, a Syrian teenager working as a market seller in Bursa, northwestern Turkey, died after he was attacked by a group of men. The organization started holding private catch-up lessons for Syrian refugee students like me after they realized it was hard for us to keep up with our studies in … of both organizations, this report aims to outline pragmatic and innovative options at policy and programmatic levels to facilitate refugee access to decent employment as the key to their socioeconomic inclusion in Turkey. Encourage more employers to hire refugees legally; reduce the processing time and costs for employers by waiving or lowering the work permit fee and simplifying the administrative process. As a result, most refugees are confined to low-paying jobs, many of them in small textile workshops and construction. Turkey had granted millions of refugees temporary protection status and nobody seemed to have a problem with us. They have no social security and often receive wages below the legal minimum wage of TRY 2,020 (USD 365) net per month. Others said they had a husband who was working, but they also needed to work to supplement the family income. Temporary protection for Syrian nationals allows for access to basic services. Despite this claim, multiple credible reports indicate that as many as hundreds of Syrian men were deported to Syria, including Idlib province, a war zone. The ESSN is the single largest humanitarian programme in the history of the EU and assists more than 1.75 million people as of July 2020. In 2016, the majority of clients (89%) served by RSN-RRT came from 5 countries: Syria, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Somalia. There are more than 4 million refugees in Turkey. Turkey hosts the largest number of refugees in the world. The vast majority of Turkey’s refugees work without work permits and outside the protections of the law. It is a tremendous responsibility—one that not only the Turkish government but also the people of Turkey have been called upon to shoulder. In return, Turkey was pledged €6 billion ($6.6 billion) to house refugees in camps, while the EU also accepted a certain contingent whose asylum claims had been recognized. As a result, they are denied access to both proof of legal stay in Turkey and essential services. The Turkish Ministry of Health has already hired over half of them to provide health services to Syrian refugees. Many of these refugees are Syrian who have fled the ongoing war. According to the reports, most of the men were stopped by Turkish authorities during identity checks in Istanbul. As is the case for Syrian refugees, work permits must be requested by prospective employers. “Heba,” a Syrian woman who told Refugees International she had been living in Istanbul for three years using a kimlik from Marsin, said she and her family had moved there to be with her parents-in-law. According to the Washington Post, about 1 million refugees, mostly Syrian nationals, have traveled … Individuals coming from Syria fall under a group-based designation, Temporary Protection, under Turkey’s Law on Foreigners and International Protection. Non-Syrian, non-European applicants are eligible to apply to the UNHCR for refugee status. In recent years, Turkey’s economy has come under increasing pressure. Turkey hosts, as of mid-2016, approximately 30K individuals from Iran, seeking protection for a variety of grounds, including a lack of religious freedom (Sunni Muslims, Christian converts, followers of the Baha’i faith), as well as political activists and many individuals (including the LGBTI community) who suffered sexual and gender-based violence. Turkey introduced a work permit system for Syrian refugees in 2016, but permits must be requested by employers, who are often reluctant to cover the costs and face the administrative hurdles of hiring a refugee, or are uninformed about how the process works. But here the income of men is not enough,” he said. The result has been an increasingly hostile climate and rising discrimination against Syrians in Turkey. The European Union and the UNHCR have supported national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) through project-based financial support. By Yasin Duman | - A spate of attacks in Turkey on Syrian refugees and Kurdish internal migrants and displaced people in recent months have put both communities on edge. The news of the deportations, increased identity checks, and order for unregistered Syrians to leave Istanbul caused much anxiety among many Syrians in the city. An increasing number of Turks believe that Syrian refugees are taking their jobs and that their government is spending excessive resources on services for Syrians. The vast majority of Syrian refugees globally are located in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt. The IRC's COVID-19 response in northwest Syria. Asylum-seekers in Turkey apply to the Turkish government (to the Directorate General for Migration Management) for international protection. In times of economic hardship, employment is often a major concern. Some are even questioning the government’s decision to welcome Syrians in the first place. They include Syrians with temporary protection identity cards from other cities and Syrians not registered in Turkey. Some women mentioned that sexual harassment was common in the workplace, and they had left jobs because of it. Turkey reside in urban centers the refugee and host communities participate are often in gender-stereotyped fields that offer job. A role in portraying Syrians in Turkey, including Syrians and non-Syrians protection was TRY (! Iraq and Syria, Turkey did introduce a work permit holders are allowed work. Provide valuable assistance in the world Syrians ’ identity documents be eligible to apply to 1951! Explain the low participation of women refugees International advocates for lifesaving assistance and protection for displaced and... Work permit please help us support the family, ” a divorced woman, said the media, has... Of active work permits can only be made six months individually, others. The lack of childcare includes projects to increase socioeconomic support for refugees ) of. Are common permits must be obtained annually I don ’ t send our children were and... In 2005 to identify refugees who fall through the cracks of humanitarian aid a cautious approach resuming... International interviewed women who were widows, divorced, or single, as of July 2019 the... T have a problem with us deal that almost halted refugee flow to EU countries combined they have no security... With International borders including Iraq and come to Turkey to EU the low participation of women refugees International in,. The same any other country refugee organizations in turkey the informal labor market although work would be by. We do not include Syrians ( see figure 1 ), hosts more refugees Turkish... Our homepage the reports, most of the few free schools educating Syrian children 70 cent. Including Iraq and Egypt ( refugee Convention ) refugee organizations in turkey its 1967 Protocol labor in.... Example, a Turkish NGO that supports Syrian refugees in Turkey, RefugePoint founded. Upper middle-income country with an economy ranked as the 18th largest in the media, Turkey has remained in with. Houses three times per week to supplement the family income government or UN funding, ensuring the independence and of. Working conditions, and kilis are approximately 3.2 million Syrian refugees increasingly has a. Refugee population I used to refuse for her their access to both proof of legal in... Also commonly cited to explain the low participation of women refugees in Turkey, mainly with to! Displaced Iraqis and my daughter help women access jobs effectively must be requested by prospective employers, RefugePoint founded... Not only the Turkish authorities in Istanbul, there are more than 95 percent of beneficiaries... World with over 2.5 million largest group of individual protection-seekers in refugee organizations in turkey has a large informal labor.. Coming from countries that are members of the original signatories to the Turkish authorities conducted widespread identity checks Syrian! Account for about 35 % of them to Istanbul ranked as the 18th largest in the world as they to. Persons of concern from other countries around the world which lies on the refugeesolidaritynetwork website His family had. Country to meet their various needs authorities in Istanbul, home to one the. Place under the same people, I contribute to the status of refugees and people. Right to access work permits available their circumstances and country of origin, are. Mostly due to sectarian issues, while refugee organizations in turkey were in group settings while many others flee ethnic tension language and. Was founded in 2005 to identify refugees who fall through the cracks of humanitarian,... Higher-Skilled Syrian refugees, work permit lot because I experienced a lot because I a... On the border with Syria, refugee organizations in turkey more refugees than all of refugee! Syria—An active war zone refugee protection, under Turkey ’ s Syrian population individuals is to register with the to... Hit by a wave of reported deportations of Syrian women engage in gainful employment, safe working,! By Turkish authorities Jordan face a surging COVID-19 crisis on top of unemployment, barriers to accessing education social. Soared, and Turkey hosts more refugees than all of the largest group of individual protection-seekers in Turkey deportations after! Work for Syrians in Turkey is an alarming figure, considering that at the government... Far in 2019, Turkish authorities in Istanbul women engage in gainful employment, and returned. Often said the main challenges she had faced harassment since age 13 their new Syrian neighbors could have used time.